The anticipated behavior of bubbles in semiconductor process liquids
CT Associates, Inc.
10777 Hampshire Ave S
Bloomington, MN 55438
Bubbles in semiconductor process liquids can be contaminants. This paper addresses how bubbles are formed in liquids, the size at which they are stable, the rates at which they grow or shrink, and how they might be removed. It shows that equilibrium bubble size is a function of the liquid surface tension, the dissolved gas concentration, and the system pressure. Bubbles that are smaller than the equilibrium size rapidly dissolve while those larger than the equilibrium size rapidly grow. Only under extraordinary conditions will bubbles smaller than 10 ?m exist for more than a few seconds. Because bubbles differ significantly from other particulate contaminants, mechanisms used to remove them from liquids must be carefully considered.
CTA publication #49: In Proceedings of the 2003 Semiconductor Pure Water and Chemicals Conference, Sunnyvale, CA, February 2003